Monthly Archives: March 2017

S3 External Tables

S3 is Amazon’s Simple Storage Service which is an inexpensive cloud storage solution and has quickly become a solution for cold data and backups. Greenplum now has External Tables that can read and write data to S3 so you can leverage this popular storage service with Greenplum. Here is how you do it!

Configuration
1. You will need an Amazon account with your Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. If you have the aws CLI installed and configured, just cat ~/.aws/credentials

2. Get your default region. This is in ~/.aws/config

3. You’ll need a bucket in this region and this can be done with the AWS web interface.

4. You’ll need a configuration file. Here is an example (be sure to change the secret and accessid).

[default]
secret = <secret>
accessid = <accesssid>
threadnum = 4
chunksize = 67108864
low_speed_limit = 10240
low_speed_time = 60
encryption = true

5. Copy the configuration to every Segment Host in your cluster.

for i in $(cat segment_hosts.txt); do scp s3_demo.conf $i:/home/gpadmin; done

Writing to S3

1. Create the Writable External Table with the S3 protocol, AWS URL that has the correct region, and the configuration file that is found on every Segment Host.

CREATE WRITABLE EXTERNAL TABLE public.demo_write
(id int, fname text, lname text)
LOCATION ('s3://s3-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/pivotalguru/demo config=/home/gpadmin/s3_demo.conf')
FORMAT 'TEXT' (DELIMITER '|' NULL AS '');

2. Execute an INSERT statement:

INSERT INTO demo_write 
SELECT i, 'Jon_' || i, 'Roberts_' || i
FROM generate_series(1,10000) as i;

Note: Each Segment will create a file in S3 in your bucket with the prefix you specify in the location specified in the Writable External Table. In this demo, each file is prefixed with “demo”. An example filename is “demo9767abbb3.txt”.

Reading from S3
1. Create the External Table with the same location and configuration as before.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE public.demo_read
(id int, fname text, lname text)
LOCATION ('s3://s3-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/pivotalguru/demo config=/home/gpadmin/s3_demo.conf')
FORMAT 'TEXT' (DELIMITER '|' NULL AS '');

2. Select the data.

gpadmin=# select * from demo_read limit 10;
 id  |  fname  |    lname    
-----+---------+-------------
  58 | Jon_58  | Roberts_58
  90 | Jon_90  | Roberts_90
 122 | Jon_122 | Roberts_122
 191 | Jon_191 | Roberts_191
 207 | Jon_207 | Roberts_207
 239 | Jon_239 | Roberts_239
 271 | Jon_271 | Roberts_271
 319 | Jon_319 | Roberts_319
 335 | Jon_335 | Roberts_335
 351 | Jon_351 | Roberts_351
(10 rows)

Time: 1139.538 ms

Tips
1. An S3 External Table that references a single file will only use a single Segment to read the data. Instead, try to have at least 1 file per Segment for an S3 External Table.
2. S3 External Tables supports gzip compression only.
3. Use S3 External Tables for cold storage or to create a backup of a table or query using a Writable External Table.